Comparative study of different Ethiopian propolis: In vivo wound healing


Mitiku Diriba Jobir, Abera Belay

Introduction: Propolis is one of the natural beehive products and a sticky material pro-duced by honeybees to protect their hives from bacterial and fungal infections.Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the wound healing, antioxidant, antibac-terial, physicochemical, and mineral profiles of propolis collected from three different regions in Ethiopia: Asela, Sheka, and Gambela.Methods: Physicochemical properties and mineral profiles were determined using stan-dard analytical methods; antibacterial examination was determined using the disk-diffusion method; antioxidant properties were examined using spectrophotometric method; and a rodent model was used to investigate the wound healing properties of propolis.Results: Ethiopian propolis has physicochemical properties, such as moisture (3.64%–6.69%), ash (2.05%–3.54%), soluble substances (45.28%–71.85%), insoluble substances (28.15%–54.74%), saponification value (82.27–127.89), conductivity (0.13–0.24), pH (4.82–5.49), waxes (7.80%–8.89%), acid value (10.07–35.14), ester value (63.84–107.03), and melting point (63.03–83.95). Minerals found in propolis were Na, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Co. The inhibition zone (mm) for the antibacterial properties range from 6.55 ± 0.20 to 10.21 ± 0.16 (water extract) and 7.09 ± 0.06 to 12.06 ± 0.03 (ethanol extracts). The phenolic contents of propolis in Asela, Sheka, and Gambela were 63.09 ± 3.55, 72.26 ± 7.65, and 82.07 ± 3.72 mg GAE/g, respectively. The flavonoid contents of propolis in Asela, Sheka, and Gambela were 24.42 ± 0.53, 17.26 ± 0.35 and 22.68 ± 0.94 mg QE/g, respec-tively, which also have good antioxidant activities. The inhibition concentration values of 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and ascorbic acid in propolis in Asela, Sheka, and Gambela were 18.13 ± 0.002, 12.17 ± 0.002, 22.07 ± 0.001 and 15.20 ± 0.002 (μgml−1), respectively. There was a significant difference between the four treatments. The wound area in propolis in Asela, Sheka, and Gambela (mm2) on day 14 was 0.51 ± 0.01, 0.60 ± 0.01, 0.49 ± 0.01, respectively. The highest wound improvement (%) was 84.49 ± 0.20 (propolis in Gambela), followed by propolis in Asela (83.75 ± 0.33) and Sheka (80.88 ± 0.32).Conclusion: Propolis collected from Ethiopia has various wound healing, antioxidant, antibacterial, physicochemical properties and mineral profiles. These properties and profiles make it a good candidate in the food industry, pharmaceutical industry, and in traditional healing practices. Best YouTube to MP3 converter. Download MP3 from YouTube for Free. one would honestly have expected more on the track Download Mp3 songs for free Given the legendary pedigree of the man behind the sound Download mp3 songs online at Mp3 Converter, watch high quality online music videos watch and download free songs of the highest quality. Listen to songs online here comfortably without any annoying advertisements. Easy to use and free MP3 downloader. YouTube To MP3 download in seconds using the best YouTube to MP3 converter. YouTube Mp3 Get the latest song by simply typing the latest artist or song title in the Search menu. Mp3 file format with 128 - 320 Kbps bitrate converted from YouTube videos. read at this site